How FICO Credit Scores Are Calculated
Because we live in a computer-driven society, it should come as no surprise that your ability to repay your mortgage comes down to one number. Credit reporting agencies use your history of paying loans to build this score.
All three major credit agencies (Equifax, Experian and TransUnion) use a slightly different system to arrive at a credit score. Fair Isaac and Cooriginally developed this score. . Experian uses this model and calls its score FICO. Equifax's model, based on FICO, is called BEACON, while TransUnion, which also uses a slightly modified FICO, calls its score EMPIRICA. While each of the models considers a range of data available in your credit report, the differences aren't huge; each agency uses the following in building your credit score:
- Your Credit History - Have you had credit for many years, or for just a short time?
- History of Payments - Do you pay your bills on time?
- Credit Card Balances - How many accounts? How much do you owe on your accounts?
- Inquiries on Your Credit - How many times have lenders pulled your credit for the purpose of giving you a loan?
Each of these factors is assigned a value and a weight. The results are added up and distilled into a single number. FICO scores can be as low as 300 and as high as 800. Higher is better. Most home buyers have a score above 620.
Your score affects how much you pay in interest every month
FICO scores affect more than your ability to get a loan. They also affect your interest rate. Lenders give lower interest rates to individuals with higher scores.
Raising your FICO score
Unfortunately, there isn't a lot you can do to immediately improve your credit score. Some companies promise quick fixes, but they can't do anything different than what you can do — for free. (Of course you must appeal incorrect items on your credit report.)
Know your FICO
To raise your credit score, you must get the reports that the agencies use to build it, and of course, you need the score itself. Fair Isaac has created a web site (www.myFICO.com) that lets you do just that. For a reasonable fee, you can quickly get your FICO from all three agencies, along with your credit report. Also available are information and tools that help you improve your FICO score.
You can get a federally-mandated free credit report every year from all three agencies at AnnualCreditReport.com. You won't get a free credit score from AnnualCreditReport.com, but getting one is quick and very inexpensive.
Now that you have all the facts, you will be a more informed consumer and you'll be better positioned to obtain the right mortgage for you.